Firstly, here is a computer resources languages and its acronyms explaining the basics and histories of each. The huge mainframes that housed the computer processors of the 1950s and 60s. It seem incongruous with today’s netbooks and microservers. Computing hardware certainly has come a long way since. Then providing us with iPads and mobile devices much more capable than some of the first computers.
Secondly, Computers cannot function on hardware alone, however. Software development has progressed alongside the development of computer hardware. Meanwhile, hardware provides the user with a physical interface to manipulate computer operation, software achieves this goal invisibly. As a behind-the-scenes technology, programming languages remain a highly specialized and professional area of study.
Most modern computer users understand different programs achieve different goals, but know little about how different programming languages allow different functionalities. Certainly, he earliest form of a programming language was developed by Herman Hollerith, who devised a way for machines to read punch cards. However, punch cards had to be coded differently for different applications, early computer programs had limited functionality and were useful mainly for large calculations and database operations.
Konrad Zuse developed the first modern computing language, Plankalkul, in 1943, although it was not implemented in his lifetime. The ‘40s and ‘50s saw huge developments in computer languages in the form of ALGOL 60, COBOL and FORTRAN. Each of these languages focused on different applications, from numerical to robotic movements. Although, they allow more general implementation than the punch card systems of the past.
Importance of Computer Resources
Therefore, languages often focus on a particular aspect of programming in order to maximize their utility. Each programming language has its own limitations and strengths in developing software. For instance, any recent developments in programming have come from open source ideologies. Developers make the source code available publicly for anyone to improve upon. Countless computer languages have been developed throughout the computing age. Therefore, to satisfy the many needs of computer users and more are under development.
Finally, new programming languages often adapt from or act as improvements too previous developments. In this way programming languages can be organized into families of relation. This is to say, these family trees often resemble the genealogical studies of spoken languages. Here is a list of popular languages and languages fundamental to the progression of software development as a whole.
– A guide to the ABC computer language including a command reference.
- The official website for Ada, a programming language designed for sound engineering.
- As well as, it provides computer resources including code snippets for Ada programs to learn the functions of the language.
- A group for the promotion and development of the Ada programming language.
- News on developments in Ada programming and computer resources for education in the language.
- A basic overview and history of the Ada language with sample programs.
- A detailed history of the development of Ada.
– Great information for learning about all parts of the Ada programming language.
- A quick history and general overview of ALGOL and its uses.
- Here, detailed PDF on the history of the ALGOL effort and its goals.
- A short article on the history and functions of the ALGOL language.
- In addition, on one of the best guides to the Awk language in print.
- Guide to Awk operations and examples of Awk programs.
- In-depth programming instructions with many functions and examples.
- – A guide by GNU on programming in Awk.
- An introduction to the Apl language and its strange character system.
- A general overview of Apl including some basic programs and their functions
- Describes Apl and its powerful succinctness.
- Describes this programming language for non-numeric applications.
- A guide to many of the different functions of B, with helpful code snippets.
- Above all, it provides information on all aspects of Visual BASIC to aid programmers.
- A ton of resources for anything you need to know about Visual BASIC.
- The developers of the True BASIC language with up to date versions.
- A BASIC-based web development platform.
- A nice tutorial to build a BASIC program.
A 1967 copy of the BCPL Reference Manual with functions and instructions for use.
A history of BCPL along with some useful commands and declarations.
- A detailed history of the development of the C programming language.
- A look into the problems experienced early in C development.
- The authoritative book on C, available in many of the world’s languages.
- A comprehensive course in C programming with many resources for various subjects.
- Great materials to get started with C programming and clear out the cobwebs.
- -A foundational book in learning C++ with some material available online.
- Describes the relationship and incompatibilities between C and C++.
- A guide to the current revision of C++.
- A comprehensive list of resources on C++ programming.
- A brief overview of Microsoft’s C# language for .NET frameworks.
- To clarify, it features a tutorial and many resources on C sharp programming.
- Overview of the Caml language with many resources on its structure.
- A version of the Caml language specifically designed for object-oriented programming.
- A beginner’s book for orientation with Caml.
The official site for the CLU programming language.
- Compiling software for working within the COBOL language.
- Resources and links for many aspects of coding with COBOL.
- – Formerly a free COBOL compiler with COBOL 85 standards, now suspended.
- A great source for COBOL resources, from software to examples.
- A compiler allowing many languages to be used together in one program.
- A great reference book for the Coral programmer.
– A brief history of the Combined Programming Language.
- An overview of the Pascal language which evolved into Delphi.
- A overview of Delphi with a couple sample programs included.
The consumer product suite for Eiffel software development including productivity tools.
A freeware Eiffel compiler compatible with GNU OS.
- An overview of Eiffel and its strengths at simplifying large projects.
- A downloadable reference guide to the Eiffel language.
- Describes FlowMatic as the basis for the development of the COBOL language.
- Advertisement from the 1950s on the Remington computer model and its use of the Flow-Matic language.
- A basic overview of the Flow-Matic language including a sample program.
- A nonprofit interest group dedicated to providing programmers with information on the Forth language.
- A brief overview of Forth and its potential for AI applications followed by links to some of the best Forth information on the web.
- A guide to programming in FORTRAN including reference tables and conceptual explanations.
- Moreover, the official documentation on the FORTRAN language as of the year 2000.
- An overview of the FORTRAN language with “Hello World!” sample program and links.
- A guide to programming in FORTRAN with exercises to test your ability.
- The official page on Haskell development and implementation with information on its application.
- A beginner’s guide to Haskell that also serves as a tutorial for basic skills.
- Interesting information on the history of Haskell and its goals for programming.
- The official site of Icon, with history, compilers and the latest build.
- An expansion of the Icon language with more functionality for modern programming.
- A reference guide to Icon’s functionality with helpful sample programs.
- The official site for the J programming language with downloads and forums provide for assistance.
- A guide to functional programming with examples from the J programming language.
- The current developers of the Java platform, one of the most common languages used in web development.
- A list of programming languages compatible with the Java Virtual Machine.
- An overview of Java with code samples and applications for the beginning programmer.
- A historical look at Java and its strengths including a handful of sample applications.
- A guide for beginners to Lisp with resources from all over the web.
- A history of Lisp development with provided sample programs.
- A guide on implementing Mainsail and its dependencies.
- A brief history of Mainsail and explanation of how it differs from other languages.
- The definitive reference guide to the Mainsail programming language.
The developers of the M programming language for database scripting.
- A description of Standard ML and its benefits for use in programming.
- An updated version of Standard ML with links to helpful textbooks and online resources.
– The official page for Modula 2 standards and specifications.
An overview and reference guide for the Modula 2 language.
- A guide to the different constructions and syntactic relations of Oberon 2.
- Defines the Oberon-2 language and the structures it employs.
- A tree representing the linguistic evolution of Oberon from the ALGOL programming language.
- In additon, user and developer oriented forum for information on the Oberon language family.
Apple’s user guide to Objective-C with reference materials for easy lookup.
An excellent guide for anyone new to Objective-C.
An interactive lesson plan designed to teach the basics of the Pascal language.
An overview of Pascal and its applications with sample programs.
The home of Perl on the web with sample code for a variety of programs and downloadable platform.
– An overview of the Perl language, sample programs and additional resources for browsing.
- The official site for PHP, one of the most common languages used in web development.
- A tutorial on scripting using PHP, categorized by application.
- – A list of PHP applications and their uses.
- A history of PL/I as it relates to Multics software development.
- – IBM’s family of PL/I compilers for use in different applications.
- – An overview of PL/I, sample applications and links to online resources.
- Tons of resources on PL/I including compilers, print resources and a virtual reference guide.
– An analysis of Plankalkul as it relates to modern programming languages.
The official site for PostScript development and news.
– A guide to printers using PostScript and GhostScript applications as well as PostScript history.
The homepage of GhostScript, a PostScript interpreter, with downloads of different versions.
An overview of Prolog and its uses in computing with sample applications and additional links.
In addition, a detailed guide on Prolog syntax and constructions.
The official site for Python featuring downloads for many platforms and documentation.
In addition, an overview of Python and its strengths with sample applications.
The official distributor of the Rexx language and related compilers and tools.
– A community for programmers working in the Rexx language to share knowledge.
- The official page for Ruby software development information.
- A site for Ruby documentation and help for programmers.
- Moreover, site devoted to Ruby syntax with a helpful tutorial to get started.
– The development of Sather at UC Berkeley and its reception by programmers.
The official site of Sather with documentation and compiler downloads.
- MIT’s homepage for Scheme with documentation and other resources.
- A community of Scheme programmers with great reference materials.
- – An implementation of Scheme designed to translate Scheme and C.
- The official site for Oracle’s Self language with reference documents and related links.
- However, a Yahoo newsgroup for Self developers to share knowledge.
- Describes the Bourne shell and its derivatives which have been instrumental. In OS development since the seventh edition of Unix.
- In addition, it mix of C shell and Bourne shell features providing programming capabilities and Unix commands.
- A shell for use with the GNU OS with features seen in C shell and KornShell.
- An overview of Simula and its difference from ALGOL 60.
- The official site of Smalltalk, a language based in message passing.
- Answers to common questions about the Smalltalk language.
- – An overview of Smalltalk’s strengths and links to other resources.
- Therefore, history of SNOBOL implementations and links to SNOBOL related sites.
- – A guide to SNOBOL syntax and operators in PDF format.
- A basic overview of SNOBOL with sample programs and language features.
Information on Tcl including documentation and software compilers.
Further, a university course on Tcl with programming exercises to aid learning.
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